E-ISSN 2475-0581
 

Original Article 


Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students

Boram Lee, Yang Eun Kim.

Abstract
Background: The prevalence of mental health issues among university student populations is a growing concern. Therefore, a reliable standardized instrument is important for identifying studentsí symptoms. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a 12-item self-report measure, designed to screen for mental disorders in general practice and community settings, is a promising instrument. Although the GHQ-12ís underlying factor structure has been investigated internationally in a variety of settings, the best factor structure is still unclear in South Korea, particularly in university settings. Therefore, this study investigated the GHQ-12ís factor structure for a sample of South Korean university students.
Methods: In this research, 504 undergraduate students participated; they were aged 18Ė28 years and attended a four-year university course in South Korea. The collected data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which tested previously proposed factor structures for the GHQ-12, including single-factor, correlated two-factor, and three-factor models.
Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that Graetzís three-factor model, representing anxiety and depression, social dysfunction, and loss of confidence, fitted the data better than a unidimensional model or correlated two-factor models. Reliability analysis showed that the total GHQ-12 had adequate internal consistency. .
Conclusions: The current study suggests that Graetzís three-factor solution provided the best fit to our data and that the Korean version of the GHQ-12 is a robust measure of general psychological distress symptoms. Moreover, our results further indicate the potential utility of also using the overall GHQ-12 score as a measure of general psychological distress, thus yielding significant advantages in both research and university settings.

Key words: Confirmatory factor analysis, Factor structure, General Health Questionnaire, Mental health, University students


 
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Pubmed Style

Lee B, Kim YE. Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology - PCP. 2020; 30(3): 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914


Web Style

Lee B, Kim YE. Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. http://www.psychiatryandclinicalpsychopharmacology.org/?mno=107368 [Access: October 02, 2020]. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Lee B, Kim YE. Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology - PCP. 2020; 30(3): 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Lee B, Kim YE. Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology - PCP. (2020), [cited October 02, 2020]; 30(3): 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914



Harvard Style

Lee, B. & Kim, . Y. E. (2020) Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology - PCP, 30 (3), 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914



Turabian Style

Lee, Boram, and Yang Eun Kim. 2020. Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30 (3), 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914



Chicago Style

Lee, Boram, and Yang Eun Kim. "Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students." Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 30 (2020), 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Lee, Boram, and Yang Eun Kim. "Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students." Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 30.3 (2020), 248-253. Print. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Lee, B. & Kim, . Y. E. (2020) Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Korean University Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30 (3), 248-253. doi:10.5455/PCP.20200518112914