E-ISSN 2475-0581
 

Original Article 


Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework

Cuneyt Evren, Halley M. Pontes, Ercan Dalbudak, Bilge Evren, Merve Topcu, Nilay Kutlu.

Abstract
PURPOSE: Previous research on gaming disorder (GD) used psychometric tools, which evaluates according to the American Psychiatric Association (APA) diagnostic framework. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), a standardized measure to assess symptoms and prevalence of GD according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic framework. The main aim of the current study was to adapt GDT to Turkish.
METHOD: In the present study participants were assessed with the GDT, the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), and the CAGE-Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (CAGE-PIUQ). The factor structure of the scale was tested with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and reliability and validity analyses were conducted.
The method used in the study, and the scale adaptation,
RESULTS: A sample of 932 Turkish gamers (58.3% male, mean age 23.64 years, SD=5.42) was recruited online. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the unidimensional factor structure of the GDT was satisfactory. The scale was also reliable (i.e., internally consistent with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.879) and showed adequate convergent and criterion-related validity, as indicated by statistically significant positive correlations between average time daily spent playing games (ATDSPG) during last year, IGDS9-SF and CAGE-PIUQ scores. By applying the International Classification of Diseases 11th edition (ICD-11) threshold for diagnosing GD (e.g., meeting all four criteria by answering them either with ‘often’ [4] or ‘very often’ [5]), it was found that the prevalence of GD is 1.9% (n = 18).
CONCLUSION: Online gaming preference, ATDSPG and probable ADHD predicted the severity of disordered gaming. These findings support the Turkish version of the GDT as a valid and reliable tool for determining the extent of GD related problems among young adults and for the purposes of early GD diagnosis in clinical settings and similar research.

Key words: e-sports; gaming disorder; GDT; Internet; scale; university students; young adults


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Evren C, Pontes HM, Dalbudak E, Evren B, Topcu M, Kutlu N. Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework.


Web Style

Evren C, Pontes HM, Dalbudak E, Evren B, Topcu M, Kutlu N. Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework. http://www.psychiatryandclinicalpsychopharmacology.org/?mno=103147 [Access: June 10, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Evren C, Pontes HM, Dalbudak E, Evren B, Topcu M, Kutlu N. Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Evren C, Pontes HM, Dalbudak E, Evren B, Topcu M, Kutlu N. Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework.



Harvard Style

Evren, C., Pontes, . H. M., Dalbudak, . E., Evren, . B., Topcu, . M. & Kutlu, . N. (2020) Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework.



Turabian Style

Evren, Cuneyt, Halley M. Pontes, Ercan Dalbudak, Bilge Evren, Merve Topcu, and Nilay Kutlu. 2020. Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework.



Chicago Style

Evren, Cuneyt, Halley M. Pontes, Ercan Dalbudak, Bilge Evren, Merve Topcu, and Nilay Kutlu. "Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework."



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Evren, Cuneyt, Halley M. Pontes, Ercan Dalbudak, Bilge Evren, Merve Topcu, and Nilay Kutlu. "Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework."



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Evren, C., Pontes, . H. M., Dalbudak, . E., Evren, . B., Topcu, . M. & Kutlu, . N. (2020) Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework.